Amazon Parrots

A brief introduction to the genus Amazona

Belize Yellow-headed Amazon (Amazona oratrix belizensis)

Amazon Parrots, or just Amazons (genus Amazona), have, by virtue of their appearance, behavior and intelligence, seduced and fascinated humans since we first spotted them in the wild approximately 300 years ago.

As a tribute to this parrot genus, which probably associates best with New World parrots, I will here give a brief introduction in words and pictures of these breathtaking birds. Together with the African Grey Parrots (Psittacus erithacus spp.), they are the most commonly kept groups of medium-sized real parrots in human care. With the exception of precisely the African Grey Parrots, there are hardly many other groups of medium-sized parrots that have meant more as pet birds to humans than this particular genus.

As is the general rule here at, the taxonomic starting point is "Howard & Moore's Complete Checklist of the Birds of the World", Vol. I, from spring 2013 as well as the latest version 4.1 (August 2018), "Errata and Corrigenda to Volume I", to this description of the Amazon genus. The taxonomy from Howard and Moore is considered absolute the best taxonomy in the world of birds, as it is maintained - and used - by the world's leading ornithologists, biologists, scientists, researchers, field observers, etc. According to this taxonomy the genus Amazona consists of 30 species and 22 subspecies (of which a single subspecies, the Culebra Amazon (Amazona vittata gracilipes) is considered extinct) - or a total of 52 different types of Amazons. In relation to the parrot family, this is thus a very species-rich genus. Since the focus here is exclusively on the genus Amazona, the Yellow-faced Amazon is not included in this list, since back in 2006 it was given its very own genus, Alipiopsitta. Henceforth, it is therefore referred to as Alipiopsitta xanthops and not Amazona xanthops, and therefore this species is not covered by this article.

In relation to the present article, the nomenclature (the naming of the various species and subspecies) is exceptionally used from a different source than Howard & Moore, namely the publication "2023 Deutsche und englische Namen der Papageien, Akademie für Vogelhaltung", published in 2023 by Arndt Verlag (Berlin 2023_03-2023-06-05), which contains the most recently updated species and subspecies names based on the most recently adopted principles for separate naming of e.g. the nominate form of each species.

In the following, I will, among other things, focus on the characteristics of the Amazona genus and tell a little about these birds in the wild and in human care. The description will be supplemented with photos of selected representatives of this genus in the form of a large number of different species and subspecies. These are mainly photos that I have taken myself of these birds in human care, but in relation to some species, typically some of the really rare Amazon species in particular, photos from the internet are used.


Detailed descriptions of each individual species or subspecies will not be given in this introduction. Instead, generalizing information is given about the genus Amazona as a whole, based on the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva spp.). The introduction will therefore not be precise in some areas in relation to all the different forms.

Colour description

The vast majority of representatives of this genus have a plumage that is predominantly green in various tones combined with more or less contrasting colour patterns in the head region as well as on the shoulders, wing mirror and tail - depending on the species, respective subspecies. These are medium-sized to large, densely built birds (although the size can vary somewhat depending on the species) with broad and rounded wings and a fairly short slightly rounded tail. When the wings are closed, the wing tips usually reach the middle of the tail, which can be of varying size, but always short. Most forms have some form of eye ring. Amazons have a relatively large beak with a distinct “tooth cut” in the upper beak. The cere over the beak can be both feathered and naked.

In general, there are no immediately visible external gender differences between male and female, alternatively the difference is minimal.

To get a closer impression of both common features and differences between the different species and subspecies, please see the various photos attached to this article, which show a selection of some (40) of the many different forms of Amazons.


In the wild

The Amazons come from Central and South America and also from Jamaica, Cuba, the Bahamas, San Domingo, Puerto Rico and the Lesser Antilles, and most species thus live in tropical and subtropical areas.

Many Amazons prefer to live in dense, closed forest, others in open forest, and still others in steppe areas. However, you typically find them in forested areas along rivers, along coastal areas or in swamps. A number of Amazons are considered true primeval forest birds that like to stay in the highest treetops, where they find food in the form of all kinds of fruit and drink water from leaf sheaths and tree holes.

This means that Amazons are rarely found on the ground. When on the ground they have a somewhat waddling gait, and in the air, they are not the most elegant flyers, but in the trees, they are in their very element, and they climb about with the greatest agility and ingenuity.

Outside the breeding season, you often find them in small flocks, and many of the individuals' chores are done together, such as to forage. Amazons usually have their permanent roosts, from which they fly early in the morning in larger or smaller groups to the areas they have chosen to search for food. Towards the evening, they find themselves again in the sleeping trees, where they take up their sleeping places for the night with loud screeching. Within the flock, the birds stay together in pairs in the case of already paired birds.

Once pairing has taken place, it is believed that the male and female will stay together for the rest of their lives.

When the birds consume fruit, berries, nuts, etc. in the treetops in the preferred foraging area, it is done in silence, which partly increases the possibility of being able to consume the food quickly, partly to better be able to be in peace for any predators and birds of prey.

In their countries of origin, Amazons most often breed in what corresponds to our winter months, and the nests are typically found in hollows in the forest's large trees, and Amazons are known for established pairs to use the same nest site year after year.

The nest is often built in a deep tree hole high up in a large tree, and the cluch usually consists of 2 - 4 white eggs.

The famous Australian ornithologist and parrot expert, Joseph M. Forshaw, who is also the author of several impressive works on parrots, says that the Amazons’ flight has always reminded him of the flight of ducks, and this makes them easy to identify in the wild.

The Amazons' wingbeats are characterized by being shallow and the wings are always moved below body level during flight, in contrast to e.g. Eclectus Parrots (genus Eclectus).

Lilacine Amazon (Amazona autumnalis lilacina) 


The parrot family are some of the most colourful, unique and interesting birds in the world. In various cultures throughout history, parrots have been especially known for their ability to imitate people and sounds. They have also learned to sing and even learned to dance. Unfortunately, all these positive characteristics and abilities have at the same time meant that a large number of Amazon species are now threatened due to illegal trade, to which is added poaching, destruction of natural habitats (deforestation), nesting sites, foraging opportunities, etc. Fortunately, several years ago international conventions and treaties tried to limit the illegal trade in wild parrots, but unfortunately such rules can be circumvented.

In February 2016, BirdLife International published a scientific study showing that the parrot family (Psittaciformes) is among the most threatened groups of bird species, with 28 % of extant species (111 out of 398) classified as globally threatened on the IUCN's so-called Red List. IUCN, or "International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources", or simply "World Conservation Union", is an independent international organization whose purpose is to promote the conservation and sustainable use of natural resources.

BirdLife International's study confirms that parrots as a whole face a higher rate of extinction than any other comparable group of birds. In fact, 56 % of all parrot species are in decline. They face a wide range of threats including loss and degradation of forest habitat, agricultural expansion, hunting and trapping - with parrots being the most common bird group reported in the wildlife trade - are all important factors.

As many as two-thirds of Amazons in the wild are endangered!

In the wild, many Amazons face serious threats, which can be summarized in:

  • Extensive destruction of their natural habitats, including foraging and nesting opportunities.
  • Persecution as a pest on crops, e.g. corn.
  • Illegal trade in wild birds.

The Puerto Rican Amazon (Amazona vittate vittata) is considered one of the world's ten rarest parrot species and has been categorized as “Critically Endangered" by BirdLife International, which means that there is an extremely high risk of its extinction in the wild. This bird is characterized by - like many other also very rare parrot species - having a limited island distribution, since, as the name already suggests, it comes from Puerto Rico, where it is estimated that there are only less than 50 individuals of the species left in the wild in a distribution area of only approximately 1,000 km2, plus 400 birds in human care.

Fortunately, extensive conservation measures have been initiated to save the Puerto Rican Amazon. Through systematic nature conservation, several Puerto Rican Amazons have been successfully reintroduced into the wild and at the same time new habitats have been established. Relatively recently, the US Fish and Wildlife Service has renewed its commitment to the conservation of the Puerto Rican Amazon, which is good news following the hurricanes Irma and Maria that devastated large parts of Puerto Rico and damaged a number of breeding facilities for this species. All the approximately 400 Puerto Rican Amazons in human care were unharmed, but all of the wild birds of this species, native to the El Yunque National Forest, had disappeared.

Nature conservation measures

Nature conservation in relation to endangered bird species, including parrots, is carried out through various bodies, partly via well-established international cooperation under the auspices of recognized institutions, partly under national auspices in the birds' countries of origin. In addition, there are a number of private associations, organizations - and private individuals - who tirelessly fight the cause of endangered bird species year after year. One of these organizations is the World Parrot Trust (WPT), which for many years has helped to create both an understanding of the need to protect a number of rare Amazons and, in addition, has actively entered into measures in the countries of origin for, together with serious partners to really make a difference for the Amazons in the wild.

One of the species that has benefited from the WPT's focus on protecting Amazons in their natural habitats since 2011 is the Vinaceous-breasted Amazon (Amazona vinacea), which primarily comes from Brazil and also is listed on CITES List I of the Washington Convention, with the status as threatened ("Endangered" according to BirdLife International). The total wild population is estimated at between 1,000 – 2,500 individuals. In its primary homeland, Brazil, the wild population of this species is declining due to extensive habitat loss, a growing pet bird trade, and a lack of proper and natural nesting opportunities.

The conservation measures aim to re-establish the Vinaceous-breasted Amazon in its historic range by providing funding and providing logistical assistance to prepare birds for a return to the wild.

A representative from WPT oversees the care and release of the birds. To date, several dozen birds have been released into the wild and are thriving. Future efforts for this species will focus in particular on increasing the capacity to rehabilitate confiscated birds from illegal trade, encouraging reproduction and management of the species in human care with a view to later release, monitoring of released birds and setting up nest boxes in various locations in the discharge area.

Guyana Yellow-crowned Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala ochrocephala)

In general

Before various international and national export and import bans were implemented, there were frequent shipments from the South American countries to Europe of large quantities of Amazons, which were typically young birds, often taken by locals (including tribal people) from the parent birds in their natural nesting places with a view to further rearing and taming them prior to sale for export via intermediaries. Countless parrots have been traumatized and thousands of birds have lost their lives in connection with capture, transport and mishandling up to the destination in the recipient country in Europe.

Some shipments could be very violent, but in Denmark we were lucky enough to have a couple of very professional importers living on the island of Amager near the capital Copenhagen, who understood how to put the welfare of the birds before so much else, and who used the nearby Copenhagen Airport to ensure short air shipments of birds from their countries of origin.

I myself have had the opportunity to experience such imports up close, e.g. back in the early 1970’s, when I did an internship with one of the largest importers of the time, Mr. Winston Wulff, who also had quarantine stations in Amager. Here I was for a while i.a. helping to look after and care for a just-arrived shipment of several hundred Red-shouldered Blue-fronted Amazons (Amazona aestiva aestiva), which consisted predominantly of young birds. I still remember that as soon as you had put on your quarantine clothes and had passed the disinfecting "shoe bath" on your way into the quarantine, you were met with a deafening noise from the many birds. In the quarantine room in question, the Amazons were placed with 4 - 6 birds in each - unfortunately much too small - small cage, which was stacked up to a few floors high. When you finished the feeding, it was a relief after screening to move on to some of the other quarantine rooms, there i.a. contained small tropical birds such as fruit and insect eaters, which, as a great contrast, had a fine, soft chirping sound. When you went between so many Amazons on a daily basis, you invariably got some favourites, and you learned, for example, quickly that in the next cage there sat a bird which was extremely tame and docile in contrast to most of the other birds. Here there was a real opportunity to get a tame bird for life. To begin with, many of these birds were anxious and screamed violently while raising their neck feathers. Since most birds were young birds, they calmed down relatively quickly, whereas the relatively few adult birds could take considerably longer to calm down and show some form of familiarity. Certain specimens were never suitable as pet birds as they remained extremely anxious and/or irritable.

For a long number of years - until well over approximately 20 years ago - the Amazons were primarily represented by relatively few species in Denmark, with the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva spp.) as the most widespread species in a special class, as well as various forms of Yellow-crowned and Yellow-headed Amazons (Amazona ochrocephala spp. and Amazona Oratrix spp.). Over time, this has changed in line with the introduction of open borders between the European countries and the possibility of using DNA-based gender determination, which has meant that it has been possible to breed with - and thus propagate - the rarer species with significantly greater success which, after all, also was to be found in certain bird collections.

Due to the Amazons' pleasant nature, adaptability - both to cages and aviaries - brightly coloured appearance and imitation talent, they have always been loved by aviculturists, who throughout the ages have kept these birds, especially as cage birds. However, over the past few decades, more and more aviculturists have fortunately instead focused on keeping Amazons in pairs in spacious and naturally designed open-air aviaries for the purpose of breeding, and this has fortunately turned out positively. This development has also been further supported here by the possibilities of being able to gender test the birds via DNA-based technology, so that you know from the start that you have a male and a female.

In fact, in the first many years, the Amazons were typically kept by people as pet companion birds in cages, whereby they tried to gain the bird's familiarity or - if possible - tried to tame the bird and make it imitate words, sounds (typically flute) or performing arts.

Kept as a pet bird, most Amazons are usually tamed and end up becoming part of the family, as many individuals also possess a talent for imitating human voices, sounds or songs. However, some Amazons - regardless of species - do not possess the ability to imitate, others become extremely skilled, and there are examples of birds that have been able to reproduce over 100 words as well as being able to sing and make sounds in situations, that made sense, e.g. to say like a door that creaks when a person walks through a door (response-contingent learning).


However, I have yet to experience a "talking" Amazon that convincingly can imitate human voices in the right pitch, as their reproduction is often very "parrot-like", and they therefore usually do not match the African Grey Parrot's formidable imitation skills.

Even if an Amazon learns to imitate, they still let their "natural" sounds be heard, and it is often quite enervating to listen to. Therefore, many people cannot keep these birds in multi-storey apartments either, as certain neighbors often feel bothered by the birds, even if no windows are open to the apartment in which the parrot is located. Conversely, you can usually have full confidence that an Amazon does not suddenly bite and generally has a loving nature, which does not always apply to the African Grey Parrot. The Amazons is not "evil" or "insidious", and it is grateful to be dealt with at all.

Buying an Amazon must never be an act of impulse, but must be based on long-term considerations about whether you can offer the bird the right conditions - based on its needs - and otherwise are prepared to spend the necessary time on the bird, so that it is not forgotten in everyday life and ends up as a sad fate in the form of a bird that is a screamer or a feather picker (if the bird first becomes one or both, it is very difficult - if not impossible - to wean the bird from these habits). Everyone in the family must agree to the purchase, and you must jointly agree to take good and responsible care of the bird. At the same time, the bird must NEVER become a toy for the family's small children - it is a unique living creature that must be respected and cared for properly - based on its natural needs and the conditions it poses.

In i.a. Denmark, through the ages, there has not always been consistency regarding the Danish naming of the various Amazon species, where some species can have up to a small handful of species names, which is also one of the reasons why I use the most recently published naming in English in this article, cf. the introduction. It is particularly important that the naming is correct so that we can keep track of the different species and subspecies. Certain species have one or more subspecies that are very similar, yet different. Likewise, there are differences in the colour of the plumage between young and adult birds. Here you have to be aware that it can take up to several years for young birds achieve their adult plumage colours. Young birds typically have a dark brown or black iris, and only later does it turn orange or yellow. In addition, the young birds can be distinguished from adult birds by their "youthful" - often darker - feet and by the not-yet-moulted juvenile plumage.

In human care

When I was a child, my father acquired a tame young Amazon, a Panama Amazon (Amazona ochrocephala panamensis), which was called "Toledo", which had been imported to Denmark via Spain, from where many of the birds of the time arrived as the first station in Europe from South America. It quickly went and became a popular and well-integrated family member that we enjoyed for a number of years.


Kept as a pet bird, Amazons - like other parrot species - must have a cage as large as possible. At the same time, the bottom of the cage must be made of metal of a certain thickness, just as the wire mesh must be of good quality, and it must be equipped with at least one door at the front that can be securely closed. In addition, there must be some practical and strong water and feed bowls, and it is best if they are made of stainless steel, as they are easier to keep clean as it at the same time is difficult for microorganisms to live on their surfaces.

Of course, you must never use round cages, as these, among other things, can contribute to the bird getting so-called "motion sickness" - that must and shall be a thing of the past.

In older non-fiction that mentions Amazons, you can, among other things, come across formulations such as "Amazons can tolerate sitting alone for several years...", but this is absolutely not something that you should strive for. In human care, the Amazons thrive absolutely best in pairs in a large outdoor aviary, which is sensibly and naturally arranged, and where the birds are offered frequent challenges and ongoing stimuli. If the bird is kept alone as a pet bird, then you must take the necessary time for it - EVERY day - otherwise you should not keep the bird.

It is fortunately common that Amazons that are kept as pet birds often are allowed to come out and sit on a stand or in a climbing tree under supervision for a few hours on a daily basis and then before night they are put into their cage, which is covered with a blanket, so that the bird can rest overnight. However, you have to remember that Amazons have curved beaks, which they like to use to bite trees and branches, and at the same time the beak can also be used to bite anything else that looks exciting, e.g. electric wires, which can cost the bird its life. This is also why it is important that the bird is always kept under supervision when it sits alone outside on its stand or in its climbing tree. In addition, open windows and doors that are jammed, etc., imply an obvious danger for the bird, so take care of it and try to think ahead about what could happen in the worst case, because in that way you can better prevent accidents.

When an Amazon is bored, typically if the owner interacts too little with it, it lets out its "natural" sounds - not least - screams, and if you have more than one bird, they can sit and annoy each other, and then you quickly get an unannounced visit from your neighbours.

A single sitting tamed Amazon will most often bond with one or more members of the family, and of course this requires that the person in question is willing to take on this responsibility, but try to get the Amazon to be the bird of the whole family.

Amazons can be more or less intelligent, which can partly depend on the individual, but also species-dependent. Personally, I consider the various Yellow-crowned species/subspecies (Amazona ochrocephala spp.) to be some of the "sharpest knives in the drawer" as we say in Danish.

As mentioned, Amazons thrive best in pairs in a large outdoor aviary with free access to a proper and heated interior during the winter, which can maintain reasonable heat throughout the winter period in the northern hemisphere. In Denmark, the national organization of bird associations (Landsorganisationen Danske Fugleforeninger) recommends aviaries with a minimum length of 300 cm for Amazon species up to 40 cm in length. The aviary must be arranged as a small piece of nature with many fresh natural branches, which must of course not be either contaminated or exposed to pesticides. Many Amazons prefer to climb rather than fly, so the aviary can be suitably arranged so that the birds can move "on foot" around the entire aviary. Therefore, there must be many and different thicknesses of natural branches to climb in. Sitting and sleeping places must be strong branches, preferably from oak or beech, and any climbing tree should be of the same material.

The lifespan of an Amazon under the right conditions - and provided it is not affected by serious illness or accidents - can reach 50 to 60 years (Blue-fronted Amazon - Amazona aestiva spp.), although there are also several reports that some individuals have become even older.

You can experience big price differences when you want to acquire some of the different Amazon species - the rarer the species or subspecies - the more expensive the bird is, of course, not least when the word "Imperial" is included in one's name.

In line with the declining interest in the Western world in keeping parrots, however, prices have generally been falling over recent years, and they continue to fall.

Many breeders of Amazons find that it nowadays in many contexts can be difficult to sell the offspring, which finally can end up with some buyer with export in mind, e.g. to Asia, where our hobby still is very popular, not least among the young people in the world's most populous country, namely India.

Southern Lilac-crowned Amazon (Amazona finschi)


The lack of visible difference between the sexes was, until a few decades ago, probably the main reason why not many Amazons were bred, but with the possibility of DNA-based gender determination, that has been changed to that extent, and one therefore see breeding of Amazons in a great many places these days.

It is important to have a strong nest construction, which must have an entrance hole with a diameter of 10 - 15 cm. The first time you try to breed with your Amazons, you should try to offer them two or more different types of nest boxes, so that the birds themselves can choose the right type for them.

Amazons become sexually mature relatively late (4 - 5 years), but it can be advantageous to put several young individuals together so that they can find their preferred partners themselves, this gives the best breeding pairs - and hence breeding results. After mating, the excess bird(s) must be removed from the aviary, so the pair get the aviary for themselves. If breeding takes place in the northern hemisphere during the winter period, be aware that it requires a certain temperature to ensure successful breeding.

Breeding in human care of the Blue-fronted Amazon (Amazona aestiva spp.) has happened numerous times even - without it being in any way a goal in itself - in very small cage conditions. During the mating game, the male approaches the female, nods his head, bends and taps his beak against a branch. Sometimes a leaf is presented to the female as a "wedding present". After mating, the female will often be fed by the male.

In human care, Amazons can lay more eggs per clutch than in nature. As a rule, 3 - 5 eggs are laid, which are incubated by the female for 28 - 30 days, during which the female is fed by the male.

The young leave the nest after approximately 60 days, but is then fed by the parent birds for an even longer time.

There are also accounts of aviculturists who have kept free-flying Amazons while also carrying out successful breeding.

One must always completely avoid hybrids that arise from the mating of different species - it is totally destructive to species protection and thereby to serious aviculturists' efforts to preserve the various wild forms in human care.

In addition, one must be aware that the species variance among the Red-shouldered Blue-fronted Amazons (Amazona aestiva aestiva) in particular can be very large, even in adult birds, and this can result in very clear differences in the distribution and clarity of the two different colours (blue and yellow), which make up the color pattern in the "face mask". Some individuals have an indistinct face mask, where the blue and yellow plumage colours run into each other, and the colours are dull and not saturated. The most beautiful specimens of this species are those that have a clearly and distinctly defined through-coloured blue forehead region, which is bordered by a strong and clearly defined saturated yellow facial mask, as can be seen from the accompanying photo of a Blue-fronted Amazon. With the help of systematic, selective breeding work, you can purposefully try to aim for this by using the right breeding birds, which in terms of phenotype resemble the desired ideal and are also supported by the genotype of the birds.


Colour mutations

Over the years, a number of different colour mutations of different Amazons have also arisen, e.g. blue mutations, cinnamon, red and INO editions. These colour mutations can be very brightly coloured, but are first and foremost different, and the question is really whether they now also surpass the fantastic appearance of the wild forms.


One of the most requested colour mutations is the blue mutation of Pacific Yellow-naped Amazon (Amazona auropalliata auropalliata), and if you compare this mutation with its wild form, it is just first of all different, and certainly not prettier than the wild form, the blue mutation seems to me to be a disappointment in the weak colours of the plumage.

Many of these colour mutation Amazons can be very expensive to acquire, and they should only be handled by knowledgeable aviculturists who already know the underlying genetics, as uncritical colour mutation breeding can harm conservation efforts for the wild forms in human care.

Unfortunately, in relation to several other parrot genera, it has been shown that if a new colour mutation occurred in a certain species, then irresponsible aviculturists would like to have the same kind of colour mutation in another species. Therefore, these irresponsible aviculturists have created such new colour mutations in new species through so-called “transmutations”, where two different species have been crossed with each other. They have used a species in which the colour mutation had already occurred naturally, and paired it with a wild-coloured bird of another species. The offspring from this mating has then been a carrier of the mutation gene, but is essentially a useless hybrid.

The offspring has then been used to repeatedly pair back the colour mutation gene in the other species, which you wanted to be a carrier of, and thereby the colour mutation has arisen in the new species, which is in fact useless. The transmuted bird can phenotypically look "species-typical", but genotypically this bird will always remain a hybrid.

Let's not hope that this also happens with the Amazons. The irresponsible aviculturists who had to think about this at least have the Amazon's long lifecycle and late sexual maturation against them, should they wish to realize their venture.

As more and more Amazons are bred in human care, it must also be expected that even more new colour mutations will occur.

Green-cheeked Amazon (Amazona viridiginalis) 


By nature, Amazons are very frugivorous, and they therefore have more liquid droppings which, due to the rapid food turnover, are also made more often - than decidedly seed-eating parrots. This must be taken into account when choosing a place to stay for the Amazons, as hygiene must be in order, and therefore cages or aviaries must be easy to clean.

Over a long series of years, however, Amazons in human care have been converted to a much higher degree to be seed eaters and in recent years also to be "pellet" eaters (pellets are artificially produced, extruded, enriched food pellets).

Seed-eating Amazons can be offered a good and varied parrot mixture mixed with parakeet mixture, and in addition fresh corn, oats, nuts, sweet and unspoiled fruit (apples, pears, bananas, oranges, cherries, peaches, apricots, and various kinds of berries). You can possibly germinate a special seed mixture, which will be very welcome especially during the breeding season, but it must be properly cleaned in clean drinking water several times during the germination process, i.a. to avoid fungal spores. The menu can be supplemented with pellets.

In addition, there must always be constant access to fresh, bud-filled (in season) branches of willow, birch, poplar and elder trees, etc., as this, in addition to the nutritional element, also contributes to natural behavioral enrichment.

Never use "human food" (e.g. prepared dishes with gravy and potatoes) for the birds, but use food items that the birds eat in the wild and specially prepared food items targeted for medium-sized parrots. In addition, a number of different food items are pure poison for the birds, e.g. chocolate, and for humans completely harmless foods such as avocado and parsley.

A healthy and well-nourished Amazon in top condition is a vital, lively and entertaining bird, which is an ornament to any aviary, it really is the essence of being a real parrot.

Jorgen Petersen

Conceived/Updated: 04.10.2020/24.01.2024